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Arachis hypogaea (peanut)


Arachis hypogaea, commonly called peanut or groundnut, is unusual in that its flowers are pollinated above ground, but the flower stalk and ovary then extend down into the ground to produce fruits below ground. The peanut was domesticated in South America, perhaps around Paraguay, Bolivia, or Peru. Cultivated peanuts are tetraploid, with parental genomes probably contributed from the diploid species A. duranensis and A. ipaensis, which occur in Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay.

Of Special Interest

A peanut genomics initiative is underway. Draft genome assemblies for the two wild diploid progenitor species of cultivated peanut (A and B genomes) have been released. See planning documents, news and events at PeanutBioscience.com. Data and analyses produced under the auspices of this initiative will be made available through peanutbase.org

See selected genetic maps on the maps tab above and peanut QTLs, traits, and related information here.

NCBI taxon3818
GRIN taxon3785

Wikipedia entry

Genome Summary

Chromosomes2n = 40


BAC library and clonesSee linked document to order clonesLinkout »
Genome assemblyDraft genome assemblies for wild diploid species (A and B genomes)Linkout »
Transcriptome assemblyA. duranensis under water stress; 454 assembly; 12,792 contigs; Guimaraes et al. BMC Genomics 2102, 13:387Linkout »
Transcriptome assemblyA. stenosperma under Cercosporidium personatum fungal infection; 454 assembly; 7,723 contigs; Guimaraes et al. BMC Genomics 2102, 13:387Linkout »
Transcriptome assemblyA. hypogaea: Mixed assembly of public reads (Sanger, 454, Illumina); described in Duan et al., 2012; http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2229/12/94Linkout »
Transcriptome assemblyA. hypogaea; three aerial and subterranean pod libraries & assembles; 454 sequence; Chen et al., 2013; Plant Biotechnology Journal (2013) 11, pp. 115–127; Linkout »
Transcriptome assembly (described)A. hypogaea: assembly from immature seeds from three varieties. Resource described by Zhang et al. BMC Genomics 2012, 13:90, but authors have not made the assemblies available.

Reference Data

Selected References

Current publications on Arachis hypogaea at PubMed.

Nagy ED, Guo Y, Tang S, Bowers JE, Okashah RA, Taylor CA, Zhang D, Khanal S, Heesacker AF, Khalilian N, Farmer AD, Carrasquilla-Garcia N, Penmetsa RV, Cook D, Stalker HT, Nielsen N, Ozias-Akins P & Knapp SJ (2012) A high-density genetic map of Arachis duranensis, a diploid ancestor of cultivated peanut. BMC Genomics 13: 469.

Gautami B, Foncéka D, Pandey MK, Moretzsohn MC, Sujay V, et al. (2012) An International Reference Consensus Genetic Map with 897 Marker Loci Based on 11 Mapping Populations for Tetraploid Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). PLoS ONE 7(7): e41213.

Pandey MK, Monyo E, Ozias-Akins P, Liang X, Guimaraes P, Nigam SN, Upadhyaya HD, Janila P, Zhang X, Guo B, Cook DR, Bertioli DJ, Michelmore R, Varshney RK. Advances in Arachis genomics for peanut improvement. Biotechnol Adv 2011 Nov 9.

Qin H, Feng S, Chen C, Guo Y, Knapp S, Culbreath A, He G, Wang ML, Zhang X, Holbrook CC, Ozias-Akins P, Guo B. An integrated genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) constructed from two RIL populations. TAG Theoretical and applied genetics Theoretische und angewandte Genetik 2011 Nov 10.

Wang ML, Sukumaran S, Barkley NA, Chen Z, Chen CY, Guo B, Pittman RN, Stalker HT, Holbrook CC, Pederson GA, Yu J. Population structure and marker-trait association analysis of the US peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection. TAG Theoretical and applied genetics Theoretische und angewandte Genetik 2011 Dec;123(8):1307-17.

Knoll JE, Ramos ML, Zeng YJ, Holbrook CC, Chow M, Chen SX, Maleki S, Bhattacharya A, Ozias-Akins P. TILLING for allergen reduction and improvement of quality traits in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Bmc Plant Biology 2011 May 12;11.

Holbrook C, Ozias-Akins P, Chu Y, Guo B. Impact of molecular genetic research on peanut cultivar development. Agronomy 2011;1:3-17.

Ravi K, Vadez V, Isobe S, Mir RR, Guo Y, Nigam SN, Gowda MV, Radhakrishnan T, Bertioli DJ, Knapp SJ, Varshney RK. Identification of several small main-effect QTLs and a large number of epistatic QTLs for drought tolerance related traits in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2011 Apr; 122(6): 1119-32.

Khedikar YP, Gowda MV, Sarvamangala C, Patgar KV, Upadhyaya HD, Varshney RK. A QTL study on late leaf spot and rust revealed one major QTL for molecular breeding for rust resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2010 Sep; 121(5): 971-84.

Hong Y, Chen X, Liang X, Liu H, Zhou G, Li S, Wen S, Holbrook CC, Guo B. A SSR-based composite genetic linkage map for the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome. BMC Plant Biol. 2010 Jan 27; 10: 17.

Varshney RK, Bertioli DJ, Moretzsohn MC, Vadez V, Krishnamurthy L, Aruna R, Nigam SN, Moss BJ, Seetha K, Ravi K, He G, Knapp SJ, Hoisington DA. The first SSR-based genetic linkage map for cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2009 Feb; 118(4): 729-39.

Hougaard BK, Madsen LH, Sandal N, de Carvalho Moretzsohn M, Fredslund J, Schauser L, Nielsen AM, Rohde T, Sato S, Tabata S, Bertioli DJ, Stougaard J. Legume anchor markers link syntenic regions between Phaseolus vulgaris, Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula and Arachis. Genetics. 2008 Aug; 179(4): 2299-312.

Jayashree B, Ferguson M, Ilut D, Doyle J, Crouch JH. Analysis of genomic sequences from peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 2005 Dec 15; 8(3)